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Effective Microorganism
EM Production and Distribution | Demonstration, Extention & Training
Workshop | Summary of EM Activities
Success/Experiences of EM Technology | Future perspective of EM Technology
Community Welfare and Development Society (CWDS) is a professional NGO in Nepal involved in promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) related programs since 1991. During 1996 June, EM Technology was introduced in Nepal through an understanding between APNAN/EMRO/INFRC and CWDS for the promotion of the technology in the Kingdom of Nepal. With continued technical assistance of Mr. Shoji Kanda (EM Researcher from EMRO) and APNAN, EM technology has spread in different parts of Nepal. The production/distribution of EM stock solution is in increasing trend because of its established and board-based benefits as has been experienced during the years from 1996 to 1999.
The importance of microorganisms in agriculture is well understood as it is the microbial population and its interactive capabilities that help in maintaining the plant/animal growth, health and production. The Effective Microorganisms (EM) technology developed by Professor Dr. Teruo Higa of the University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa-Japan has gained the global popularity because of the immediate impact of the technology on different fronts.
EM consists of mixed cultures of beneficial and naturally occurring microorganisms that can be applied as inoculant to increase the microbial diversity of soils and plants. It has been proven that the inoculation of EM cultures to the soil/plant ecosystem can improve soil quality, soil health and the growth, yield and quality of crops. Animal/poultry and waste management sectors are equally benefiting from the use of this technology.
EM contains selected species of microorganisms including predominant population of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, and smaller numbers of photosynthetic bacteria, actinomycetes and other types of organisms. All of these are mutually compatible with one another and can co-exist in liquid culture.
EM is not a substitute for other management practices. It is, however, an added dimension for optimizing our best soil and crop management practices such as crop rotations, use of organic amendments, conservation tillage, crop residues recycling and bio-control of pests. If used properly, EM can significantly enhance the beneficial effects of these practices.
The EM technology was introduced in Nepal during 1996. APNAN has entrusted the responsibilities of demonstration, extension and training of EM technology to CWDS in Nepal. Since 1996 CWDS has been working with EM technologies in different parts of Nepal for the promotion of sustainable farming practices on its own and in collaboration with other NGOs, farmers, tea estates and agriculture offices. CWDS has been working for the promotion of local resource based 'ideal agriculture system' for the benefit of the common farming population to ensure food security at the household level which in turn reflects the economic improvement at national level. An ideal Agriculture system is sustainable, maintains and improves human health, benefits producers and consumers both economically and spiritually, protects the environment and produces enough food for an increasing population.
EM Production and Distribution
The basic seed material (EM-1, 2 and 3) required for the production of EM stock solution is being maintained at the EM Centre of CWDS in Biratnagar in eastern Nepal. This seed material is being used for making EM stock solution at different locations in different parts of the country. The use of EM technology has expanded in the year 1999 which made CWDS to facilitate the availability of EM stock solution at different locations. Thus, the EM production points have increased. There are many more NGOs associated with CWDS in the production of EM stock solution and its distribution to the users. Altogether 14500 litres of EM stock solution was made and distributed in the year 1999.
Demonstration, Extention and Training
The demonstration/trials of EM technology is no more limited just to CWDS. At present there are several other professionals/institutions associated/involved in the demonstrations/trials of EM technology on different aspects as per the interest of the concerned. Although, the intended efforts of CWDS and its collaborating NGOs and individuals are limited to few locations but the technology has spread to different parts of Nepal because of its immediate impact as observed by the practitioners.
The dissemination of the technology has spread prominently by the users of EM technology, although the quarterly publication (KISAN) of CWDS has played a significant role in disseminating the information. The new version of EM Technology booklet (in Nepali language) which was printed in the early of 1998 has been reprinted again in 1999 because of its increased demand. The booklet is being used as the technical guidebook for the users of EM technology in Nepal.
The interest for the training of extension workers and practitioners on EM technology has increased quite significantly during the year 1999. CWDS was unable to meet the training demand of all but successful in making the linkage for training facilitation through collaborating NGOs and professionals. The EM technology training has become an important activity of the collaborating NGOs besides CWDS. The ESC and RJM, the two active collaborators, were involved in conducting several training at different locations sponsored by interested agencies.
"EM Technology Sharing Workshop" was organized at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (Rampur Campus) on 22nd December 1999. This one day workshop was participated by the Institute's faculty members and students, the technology practicing farmers and NGO's members in the area. The objective of the workshop was to share the learning and impact of EM technology as experienced in Nepal, besides throwing lights of EM technology in the global perspective.
Summary of EM Activities
Activities 1996 1997 1998 1999
Training 3(49)-Kakani 4(61)-Kakani
6(261)-Illam, Morang, Panchthar
1(40)- IAAS Rampur
3(78)-East Nepal
Sharing Workshop - 1(22)-Kathmandu 1(28)-Kathmandu
Production Kakani Kakani
Production 1000 3500 13540 14500
Besides the above mentioned organized training and workshop, regular interactions and field visits of EM technicians are helpful extension methodology being practiced in order to make EM technology Known to the large number of people.
Success/Experiences of EM Technology
There are many more successes/results of EM technology as experienced by the practitioner farmers. The positive results of EM technology in Nepal is the main attraction which is bringing many more practitioners adopt EM technology. The technology has become known to the people at the national level, although there is still some hesitance in some corner because of several other dominant factors. The EM technology will make its breakthrough in Nepal because of its immediate benefits as experienced by the practitioners which is expected to influence and force all to realize its relevancy in the present context of sustainable agriculture and environmental concerns.
EM Compost & Fermented Plant Extracts EM Compost & Fermented Plant Extracts
The use of EM technology in Nepal is very short, however; following important sectors are being put forward as the efficacy and impact of EM technology in Nepal has been experienced within the short period of time.
  In Compost Making
  In Improving soil Conditions/Characteristics
  In Better Plant/Animal Production Growth
  In Income Generating Activities
  In Relieving Foul Odor
Future Perspective of EM Technology
As the technology has spread with its diverse impact, the demand of EM stock solution supplies has equally increased. CWDS is looking towards private sector taking the responsibility of EM stock solution production and marketing in different parts of Nepal as a commercial enterprise. There is good interest among the interested entrepreneurs and CWDS is hopeful that a genuine party will join this venture very soon.
The need of increased technical assistance at the farmers' level is equally important. CWDS is committed to increase its capability and encourage other NGOs and agencies to be involved in the training and extension of EM technology in different parts of the country.
EM related research aspect is equally important in which several professionals are already involved. Looking into the widespread adoption of EM technology at grassroots level, CWDS is hopeful that many more agencies will take this responsibility in the days to come.
CWDS is committed to take care all the above mentioned efforts; however, the assistance of APNAN/EMRO/INFRC is more important to bring all the initiatives/efforts towards a successful results. The technical assistance from EMRO and APNAN has remained the motivating and influencing factor in making the technology spread in such a short period. Still, more concerted efforts are the need of the time for which EMRO and APNAN are expected to contribute more significantly.
© Community Welfare and Development Society
P.O. Box: 7923, Kathmandu, Nepal
Tel: +977-1-350196, 350056 Fax: +977-1-350038
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Last updated on:   March 14, 2001