Welfare and Development Society (CWDS) is a professional NGO in
Nepal involved in promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
(SARD) related programs since 1991. During 1996 June, EM Technology
was introduced in Nepal through an understanding between APNAN/EMRO/INFRC
and CWDS for the promotion of the technology in the Kingdom of Nepal.
With continued technical assistance of Mr. Shoji Kanda (EM Researcher
from EMRO) and APNAN, EM technology has spread in different parts
of Nepal. The production/distribution of EM stock solution is in
increasing trend because of its established and board-based benefits
as has been experienced during the years from 1996 to 1999.
The importance of microorganisms in agriculture is well understood
as it is the microbial population and its interactive capabilities
that help in maintaining the plant/animal growth, health and production.
The Effective Microorganisms (EM) technology developed by Professor
Dr. Teruo Higa of the University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa-Japan has
gained the global popularity because of the immediate impact of
the technology on different fronts.
EM consists of mixed cultures of beneficial and naturally occurring
microorganisms that can be applied as inoculant to increase the
microbial diversity of soils and plants. It has been proven that
the inoculation of EM cultures to the soil/plant ecosystem can improve
soil quality, soil health and the growth, yield and quality of crops.
Animal/poultry and waste management sectors are equally benefiting
from the use of this technology.
EM contains selected species of microorganisms including predominant
population of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, and smaller numbers
of photosynthetic bacteria, actinomycetes and other types of organisms.
All of these are mutually compatible with one another and can co-exist
in liquid culture.
EM is not a substitute for other management practices. It is, however,
an added dimension for optimizing our best soil and crop management
practices such as crop rotations, use of organic amendments, conservation
tillage, crop residues recycling and bio-control of pests. If used
properly, EM can significantly enhance the beneficial effects of
The EM technology was introduced in Nepal during 1996. APNAN has
entrusted the responsibilities of demonstration, extension and training
of EM technology to CWDS in Nepal. Since 1996 CWDS has been working
with EM technologies in different parts of Nepal for the promotion
of sustainable farming practices on its own and in collaboration
with other NGOs, farmers, tea estates and agriculture offices. CWDS
has been working for the promotion of local resource based 'ideal
agriculture system' for the benefit of the common farming population
to ensure food security at the household level which in turn reflects
the economic improvement at national level. An ideal Agriculture
system is sustainable, maintains and improves human health, benefits
producers and consumers both economically and spiritually, protects
the environment and produces enough food for an increasing population.
Production and Distribution
basic seed material (EM-1, 2 and 3) required for the production
of EM stock solution is being maintained at the EM Centre of CWDS
in Biratnagar in eastern Nepal. This seed material is being used
for making EM stock solution at different locations in different
parts of the country. The use of EM technology has expanded in the
year 1999 which made CWDS to facilitate the availability of EM stock
solution at different locations. Thus, the EM production points
have increased. There are many more NGOs associated with CWDS in
the production of EM stock solution and its distribution to the
users. Altogether 14500 litres of EM stock solution was made and
distributed in the year 1999.
Extention and Training
demonstration/trials of EM technology is no more limited just to
CWDS. At present there are several other professionals/institutions
associated/involved in the demonstrations/trials of EM technology
on different aspects as per the interest of the concerned. Although,
the intended efforts of CWDS and its collaborating NGOs and individuals
are limited to few locations but the technology has spread to different
parts of Nepal because of its immediate impact as observed by the
The dissemination of the technology has spread prominently by the
users of EM technology, although the quarterly publication (KISAN)
of CWDS has played a significant role in disseminating the information.
The new version of EM Technology booklet (in Nepali language) which
was printed in the early of 1998 has been reprinted again in 1999
because of its increased demand. The booklet is being used as the
technical guidebook for the users of EM technology in Nepal.
The interest for the training of extension workers and practitioners
on EM technology has increased quite significantly during the year
1999. CWDS was unable to meet the training demand of all but successful
in making the linkage for training facilitation through collaborating
NGOs and professionals. The EM technology training has become an
important activity of the collaborating NGOs besides CWDS. The ESC
and RJM, the two active collaborators, were involved in conducting
several training at different locations sponsored by interested
Technology Sharing Workshop" was organized at the Institute of
Agriculture and Animal Science (Rampur Campus) on 22nd December
1999. This one day workshop was participated by the Institute's
faculty members and students, the technology practicing farmers
and NGO's members in the area. The objective of the workshop was
to share the learning and impact of EM technology as experienced
in Nepal, besides throwing lights of EM technology in the global
of EM Activities
6(261)-Illam, Morang, Panchthar
1(40)- IAAS Rampur
the above mentioned organized training and workshop, regular interactions
and field visits of EM technicians are helpful extension methodology
being practiced in order to make EM technology Known to the large
number of people.
of EM Technology
are many more successes/results of EM technology as experienced
by the practitioner farmers. The positive results of EM technology
in Nepal is the main attraction which is bringing many more practitioners
adopt EM technology. The technology has become known to the people
at the national level, although there is still some hesitance in
some corner because of several other dominant factors. The EM technology
will make its breakthrough in Nepal because of its immediate benefits
as experienced by the practitioners which is expected to influence
and force all to realize its relevancy in the present context of
sustainable agriculture and environmental concerns.
Compost & Fermented Plant Extracts
use of EM technology in Nepal is very short, however; following
important sectors are being put forward as the efficacy and impact
of EM technology in Nepal has been experienced within the short
period of time.
Improving soil Conditions/Characteristics
Better Plant/Animal Production Growth
Income Generating Activities
Relieving Foul Odor
Perspective of EM Technology
the technology has spread with its diverse impact, the demand of
EM stock solution supplies has equally increased. CWDS is looking
towards private sector taking the responsibility of EM stock solution
production and marketing in different parts of Nepal as a commercial
enterprise. There is good interest among the interested entrepreneurs
and CWDS is hopeful that a genuine party will join this venture
The need of increased technical assistance at the farmers' level
is equally important. CWDS is committed to increase its capability
and encourage other NGOs and agencies to be involved in the training
and extension of EM technology in different parts of the country.
EM related research aspect is equally important in which several
professionals are already involved. Looking into the widespread
adoption of EM technology at grassroots level, CWDS is hopeful that
many more agencies will take this responsibility in the days to
CWDS is committed to take care all the above mentioned efforts;
however, the assistance of APNAN/EMRO/INFRC is more important to
bring all the initiatives/efforts towards a successful results.
The technical assistance from EMRO and APNAN has remained the motivating
and influencing factor in making the technology spread in such a
short period. Still, more concerted efforts are the need of the
time for which EMRO and APNAN are expected to contribute more significantly.