economy of Nepal is based on agriculture and in the past its farming
systems were fully based on the efficient utilization of natural
resources available in the surrounding areas. The green revolution
technologies were introduced in the sixties in the name of agriculture
development that has brought significant change in the farming practices.
The trend was shifted from nature based farming to chemical based
farming by undermining the inherent potentials of the Nature which
has resulted into ecological imbalance, hazards in human health
and so many other distortions without any economic benefits to the
farming population. CWDS, as development and professional NGO in
Nepal, has remained sensitive towards this trend and committed its
all efforts in promoting nature based farming systems and ecological
regeneration related activities from the very beginning of its establishment.
farming systems development and its promotion based on the locally
available resources has remained the guiding principles of CWDS
in its program implementation from the very beginning of its establishment
as a development NGO in Nepal. CWDS has focussed its agriculture
related activities in such a way that it helps in reviving the natural
capacity of the soil and indigenous wisdom of the people in order
to have agriculture sector developed sustaining the ecology, economy,
dignity and tradition of the people. The organic agriculture is
gaining its ground worldwide and likewise, it is expanding in Nepal
as well. CWDS is concentrating its efforts in making the farming
community convinced about the relevance and sustainability of organic
farming, thus putting its focus on the systems and its practices.
There are several individual farmers who have changed their farming
practices to organic and are expressing satisfaction in their decision
because of the profitability of the farming enterprises and its
ecological impact as being observed by the practicing farm families.
Organic tea has come to the market and being exported outside the
country as well. More tea estates are in conversion stage from conventional
to organic because of the economic and ecological profitability
of the enterprise as has been realized and observed by the entrepreneurs.
This is a great breakthrough in organic movement in commercial sector
within Nepal. On small scale, organic vegetables, fruits and herbs
are also being produced and marketed.
of compost has been a traditional practice in the farming systems
in Nepal. The duration (of about 8 months) in composting has remained
a major factor hindering the adoption of composting practices. The
EM (Effective Microorganisms) technology, which was introduced by
CWDS in 1996, has become popular in reducing the time in composting
(to about 1 month) and in enhancing the efficient use of farm/household
residues by way of making compost quickly and its efficient application
in the fields.
nutritional and insecticidal uses of animal urine and plant materials
are being increasingly used. Compost has been considered as the
cheap source of nutrients and animal urine has the efficient insecticidal
and medicinal properties in organic farming systems and therefore,
CWDS is promoting this component on a wider scale through its training
and extension activities. The conversion of waste greens/materials
into compost has become prominent besides using green manuring plants
directly to the fields. This is an important breakthrough in reducing
the use of chemicals in the farming operations.
is one of the extension methodology being used to motivate the farmers
to observe the benefits of organic farming within their own environment.
The converted organic farms in the area are the resource centres
for convincing the farming population to make a shift in their farming
practices from chemical based to local resource based in order to
ensure the household food security and its sustainability besides
having positive ecological impact and economic benefits. Several
demonstration sites have been established in different areas depending
upon the needs of the people and the area. CWDS and its technical
team members are assisting few organic tea estates in eastern Nepal
in preparing organic matter (compost) out of local materials available
through the use of EM technology in the respective tea gardens.
The demonstration effect of EM technology has spread in different
parts of the country and there is increasing interest among the
farming population in spreading this technology in several farming
importance of vegetation in and around the farming areas have now
been realized by the farming community after observing the immense
negative impact (on total farm production, ecology and human health)
of clean cultivation which was promoted under green revolution package.
Plantation of trees, Vetiver, Napier and other leguminous perennials
has been continued in the area. Napier grass has become major feed/fodder
for livestock and goats with supplementary benefits of its ability
in terrace stabilization and soil erosion control. The community
members have understood the importance of green coverage in and
around the area and therefore, plantation of fodder and timber saplings
has become a regular activity during the monsoon (June to August)
season every year.
was involved in demonstrations, multiplication, extension and information
dissemination of Vetiver grass for the year 1997 and 1998 under
a collaborative agreement with The Vetiver Network (TVN). CWDS has
included the propagation, plantation and promotion of Vetiver grass
in its natural resource management related activities. CWDS has
been successful in convincing few other NGOs as well to participate
in the promotion of Vetiver grass as a planting material to landslide
prone areas. Vetiver is a proven perennial shrub for terrace/slope
stabilization having several other ecological and economic importance.
CWDS has done the multiplication of Vetiver at different locations
by which there is enough planting material at different location
which are available for general distribution to the people/agencies
interested in it. The Vetiver clumps from the Demonstration farm
of CWDS at Kakani have been made available to the interested groups
in the Far Western Nepal in the year 1999. The information dissemination
through the Vetiver Booklet printed in Nepali language during 1997
and through the regular quarterly publication KISAN (meaning FARMER)
of CWDS have been continued as the effective means of making Vetiver
popular in different parts of Nepal. The demonstrations on slope/terrace/embankment
stabilization have been impressive to the people. The Vetiver related
component is the integrated activity in the sustainable farming
initiatives of CWDS.